Engineering Archive

Process costing

Process costing Process costing takes into account the cost of each manufacturing process and apportions part of the cost of each process to an individual product. Typical processes might be: • forming, bending or machining of metal

Costing Techniques

Any engineering company will incur a variety of costs. These will typically include: • rent for factory and office premises • rates • energy costs (including heating and lighting) • material costs • costs associated with production

Environmental legislation

Engineering activities can have harmful effects on the physical environment and therefore on people. In order to minimize these effects, there is a range of legislation (rules and regulations) that all engineering companies must observe. The appropriate

Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide in the air absorbs some of the long-wave radiation emitted by the earth’s surface and in so doing is heated. The more carbon dioxide there in the air, the greater the heating or greenhouse effect. This

Environmental constraints

Modern engineering processes and systems are increasingly designed and implemented to minimize environmental affects. Engineering companies must ensure that the negative effects of engineering activities on the natural and built environment are minimized. You need to be

Global factors

Another prime example of the shift of engineering activities out of Europe is that of shipbuilding. The UK’s contribution in particular has fallen and is now virtually nonexistent except for the manufacture of oil platforms and ships

Local economy

For the first half of the twentieth century, engineering was generally located within cities. Since then there has been a tendency for any new engineering enterprise to be located in an industrial estate on the periphery of

Human Development Index

GDP (or GDP per capita) is often taken as an indicator of how developed a country is but its usefulness is somewhat limited as it only refers to economic welfare. In an attempt to put this right,

Gross domestic product per head

GDP per head is a measure of productivity. It relates output to the number of people employed producing that output. The formula used is: Output per head output produced divided by the =(or per capita) number of

Gross national product

Gross national product The total output of the UK can be measured by adding together the value of all goods and services produced by the UK. This figure is called the GNP The word `gross’ implies that